Horology, the science and study of measuring time, involves crafting, restoring, repairing, and otherwise devoted to time-measuring instruments, such as clocks, watches, sundials, water clocks, clockwork, time recorders, marine chronometers, quartz and atomic technology. Horologists are individuals who professionally work with time apparatuses and may be referred to as watchmakers. Horologists have formed certain organizations, associations, and other groups to promote the study and preservation of time-measuring instruments. Follow the links below for a more in-depth understanding of horology and the time phenomenon we have all become accustomed to since birth.


  • The History of Time: A comprehensive lesson teaching the very roots of time, starting from the very beginning, the sands of time, first tick, Galileo's discovery, the contest, and the evolution of time therewith.
  • A Walk Through Time: An NIST physical measurement laboratory presentation displaying the evolution of time measurement throughout time. The website is segmented off into separate categories, including ancient calendars, early clocks, the revolution in timekeeping, the “Atomic” Age, world time of scales and time zones, and other miscellaneous information.
  • A History of Time: Classical Time: An extensive article teaching about the history of time through theories involving quantum mechanics and mundane events taking shape that led to timekeeping mechanical devices, such as calendars, clocks, and watches.
  • History of Clocks: A brief history of clocks stemming from ancient times to medieval Europe, the late-1590s and into the early 1700s.
  • No. 1506: The First Mechanical Clocks: An audio and text summary addressing the first mechanical clocks. Mechanical clocks replaced the old water clocks used millennia prior to its invention.

How Clocks Work:

  • Making a Sun Clock: A science project geared towards crafting a home-made sun clock. A sun clock, or sun dial, was used in ancient times to determine the time of day using the illumination of the sun and shadows.
  • Clocks Through Time: Water Clocks: A brief description of the water clock, an Egyptian time-measuring device using water as the primary source.
  • The Galileo Project: Pendulum Clocks: A comprehensive description of the pendulum clock based on Aristotelian physics and implemented by Galileo.
  • The Quartz Clock: The Quartz clock, a time-measuring device using the vibrations emitted from a quartz crystal, was invented by Warren Morrison in 1927. The Quartz clock was proven to be more successful and accurate than the mechanical clocks of past centuries.
  • Atomic Clocks: An Atomic clock is an extremely accurate clock based on the vibrations of an electronic oscillator in conjunction with the frequency of an atomic transition.

Famous Clocks:

  • Big Ben: Living Heritage: Big Ben, a London-based clock tower, was completed in May 31, 1859. The web page includes information on how the clock was built, the inner-workings of the clock, certain facts, figures, and key dates.
  • Doomsday Clock: A thematic clock focused on the potentiality for nuclear war. This web page details significant points where minutes could have ended in a doomsday scenario.
  • The Mystery of the Ohio Clock in the U.S. Senate: A 193-year old clock that has watched over the Senate without explanation, and a heavy duty amount of rumor, curiosity, and misinformation.
  • Famous Clocks Around the World: Corpus Clock: The Corpus Clock, commonly referred to as the “Time-Eater,” devours one second. It took seven years to build and costs nearly 1 million dollars.
  • The Time Square Debt Clock: The Time Square Debt Clock measures the U.S. national deficit by the millisecond. This article details how the national deficient breached the 10 trillion dollar mark in 2008. In fact, it was the first time in history that the digital clock ran out of digits.
  • Copenhagen's World Clock: The Jens Olsen Copenhagen World Clock has the most precise mechanical device with more than 13 different clockworks.
  • Prague Astronomical Clock: The Prague Astronomical Clock reveals the past reflections of the heavenly order by the ancient citizens of Prague.
  • Cosmo Clock 21: Cosmo Clock 21, the largest Ferris wheel in the world, has a gigantic digital clock mounted to it, which makes it the largest clock equipment ever made. It is a popular landmark in Yokohama, Japan.
  • Cafe Clock: Cafe Clock, a 250-year old water clock, exists in Fes, Morroco. It has ticking rhythms to multiple metronomes.
  • Birch Memorial Clock Tower: A beautiful clock design made of Ipoh marble and presented to the Chinese community in Perak.

Associations, Organizations, and Other Groups:

Horology Museums:

  • The Waltham Museum Incorporated: A non-profit organization established in 1971 within Waltham, Massachusetts. The Waltham Museum was one of the first companies to make a watch with interchangeable parts.
  • Willard House and Clock Museum: The Willard House and Clock Museum can be found in Grafton, Massachusetts and hosts more than 80 different clocks created by Benjamin Willard in 1766.
  • The Bundy Museum: History and Art: The Bundy Museum hosts permanent and rotating exhibits, including time-worn Binghamton, NY clocks.
  • The TimeEx Expo: The Timex museum tells the story of Timex's rise as a corporate power, including its beginning stages that dates back to 1854.
  • NAWCC: The official website of the National Watch & Clock Museum.


  • Antique Horology: A website dedicated to antique clocks and watches from all over the world. The web page has segments that include educational materials, iconology research tools, articles, books, parts and repair, and price quotes for such replacement parts.
  • The History of Clockmaking, Horology and Watches, which includes a great breakdown on timekeeping history from ancient civilizations' use of sundials, water and shadow clocks, the introduction of pendulums, the invention of the electric clock, portable clock, etc.
  • School of Horology: An accredited educational institution dedicated to teaching prospective students the inner-workings of ancient and modern clocks and watches.
  • Horology: The one-stop resource center for prospective and professional horologists.
  • What is a Horologist?: This article explains what a horologist examines in a clock or watch.
  • George Daniels: Tribute to 'greatest ever horologist': A BBC-sponsored article detailing the life of George Daniels, reputed to be one of the greatest horologists in history.
  • John Harrison, Biography: John Harrison, one of the highly reputed horologists in modern times, was heralded for his distinct interest in old clocks and watches.
  • Watch Repairers: The Bureau of Labor and Statistics shares occupational data for watch repairers and horologists.
  • Michael Swift: Michael Swift is a renowned horologist in the United Kingdom. He offers discounts for his services, and shares a video of his repair and restoration process.
  • Telling Time in Ancient Rome: A historical account of how the ancient Roman Empire used sundials and water clocks to determine the time of day.
  • Water Clocks: Chinese Culture: A brief article detailing the history of water clocks in ancient Chinese culture.
  • Quartz Technology: An extended summary regarding quartz technology and how a single crystal could produce more accuracy in clockwork than mechanical designs.
  • Quartz Clock Tutorial (PDF): A detailed tutorial on how to create a quartz clock.
  • How Quartz Watches Work: An extensive article detailing the functionality of quartz watches.
  • Watchmaking Overview: An overview of the processes used in watchmaking and repair.